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Posts Tagged ‘Libraries’

Missing PHP Functions: getopts()

December 23rd, 2008 11 comments

This function is intended as a complete replacement for the horribly crippled getopt() native PHP function and provide extended functionality.

The use of this library means lots of great command-line-fu becomes readily available without any unnecessary validation tediousness messing up the first half of your script.

To use simply add the (ahem) hash-bang to the top of your PHP script and make the script executable.

An example of a correct setup would be:

#!/usr/bin/php -qC
 array('switch' => 'a','type' => GETOPT_SWITCH),
	'b' => array('switch' => array('b','letterb'),'type' => GETOPT_SWITCH),
	'c' => array('switch' => 'c', 'type' => GETOPT_VAL, 'default' => 'defaultval'),
	'd' => array('switch' => 'd', 'type' => GETOPT_KEYVAL),
	'e' => array('switch' => 'e', 'type' => GETOPT_ACCUMULATE),
	'f' => array('switch' => 'f'),
),$_SERVER['argv']);
print_r($opts);
?>

In the above the script can now be run as:

./getopts_example.php -a -b

With the incoming options (in this case the switches ‘a’ and ‘b’) being set in the $opts variable.

Full documentation as well as extensive examples are included in the source which can be found below.

#!/usr/bin/php -qC
 array('switch' => 'a','type' => GETOPT_SWITCH),
	'b' => array('switch' => array('b','letterb'),'type' => GETOPT_SWITCH),
	'c' => array('switch' => 'c', 'type' => GETOPT_VAL, 'default' => 'defaultval'),
	'd' => array('switch' => 'd', 'type' => GETOPT_KEYVAL),
	'e' => array('switch' => 'e', 'type' => GETOPT_ACCUMULATE),
	'f' => array('switch' => 'f'),
),$_SERVER['argv']);
?>

When used with the commandline:
>./PROGRAM.php -ab -c 15 -d key=val -e 1 --letterb -d key2=val2 -eeeeeee 2 3

Gives the $opt variable the following structure:
$opt = Array (
	[cmdline] => Array (
		[0] => 1
		[1] => 2
		[2] => 3
	)
	[a] => 1
	[b] => 1
	[c] => 15
	[d] => Array (
		[key] => val
		[key2] => val2
	)
	[e] => 8
	[f] => 0
)

Of course the above is a complex example showing off most of getopts functions all in one.

Types and there meanings
========================

GETOPT_SWITCH
	This is either 0 or 1. No matter how many times it is specified on the command line.
	
	>PROGRAM -c -c -c -cccc
	Gives:
	$opt['c'] = 1;
	
	>PROGRAM
	Gives:
	$opt['c'] = 0

GETOPT_ACCUMULATE
	Each time this switch is used its value increases.
	
	>PROGRAM -vvvv
	Gives:
	$opt['v'] = 4

GETOPT_VAL
	This expects a value after its specification.
	
	>PROGRAM -c 32
	Gives:
	$opt['c'] = 32
	
	Multiple times override each precursive invokation so:
	
	>PROGRAM -c 32 -c 10 -c 67
	Gives:
	$opt['c'] = 67

GETOPT_MULTIVAL
	The same format as GETOPT_VAL only this allows multiple values. All incomming variables are automatically formatted in an array no matter how few items are present.
	
	>PROGRAM -c 1 -c 2 -c 3
	Gives:
	$opt['c'] = array(1,2,3)
	
	>PROGRAM -c 1
	Gives:
	$opt['c'] = array(1)
	
	>PROGRAM
	Gives:
	$opt['c'] = array()

GETOPT_KEYVAL
	Allows for key=value specifications.
	
	>PROGRAM -c key=val -c key2=val2 -c key3=val3 -c key3=val4
	Gives:
	$opt['c'] = array('key1' => 'val2','key2' => 'val2','key3' => array('val3','val4');

*/

define('GETOPT_NOTSWITCH',0); // Internal use only
define('GETOPT_SWITCH',1);
define('GETOPT_ACCUMULATE',2);
define('GETOPT_VAL',3);
define('GETOPT_MULTIVAL',4);
define('GETOPT_KEYVAL',5);

/**
* @param array $options The getOpts specification. See the documentation for more details
* @param string|array $fromarr Either a command line of switches or the array structure to take options from. If omitted $_SERVER['argv'] is used
* @return array Processed array of return values
*/
function getopts($options,$fromarr = null) {
	if ($fromarr === null)
		$fromarr = $_SERVER['argv'];
	elseif (!is_array($fromarr))
		$fromarr = explode(' ',$fromarr); // Split it into an array if someone passes anything other than an array
	$opts = array('cmdline' => array()); // Output options
	$optionslookup = array(); // Reverse lookup table mapping each possible option to its real $options key
	foreach ($options as $optitem => $props) { // Default all options
		if (!isset($props['type'])) { // User didnt specify type...
				$options[$optitem]['type'] = GETOPT_SWITCH; // Default to switch
				$props['type'] = GETOPT_SWITCH; // And again because we're not using pointers here
		}
		switch ($props['type']) {
				case GETOPT_VAL:
					if (isset($props['default'])) {
						$opts[$optitem] = $props['default'];
						break;
					} // else fallthough...
				case GETOPT_ACCUMULATE:
				case GETOPT_SWITCH:
					$opts[$optitem] = 0;
					break;
				case GETOPT_MULTIVAL:
				case GETOPT_KEYVAL:
					$opts[$optitem] = array();
		}
		if (is_array($props['switch'])) { // Create the $optionslookup var from an array of aliases
				foreach ($props['switch'] as $switchalias)
					$optionslookup[$switchalias] = $optitem;
		} else { // Create the $optionslookup ref as a simple pointer to the hash
			$optionslookup[$props['switch']] = $optitem;
		}
	}
	
	$inswitch = GETOPT_NOTSWITCH;
	for ($i = 1; $i < count($fromarr); $i++) {
		switch ($inswitch) {
			case GETOPT_MULTIVAL:
			case GETOPT_VAL:
				if (substr($fromarr[$i],0,1) == '-') // Throw error if the user tries to simply set another switch while the last one is still 'open'
					die("The option '{$fromarr[$i]}' needs a value.\n");
				GETOPT_setval($opts,$options,$inswitch_key,$fromarr[$i]);
				$inswitch = GETOPT_NOTSWITCH; // Reset the reader to carry on reading normal stuff
				break;
			case GETOPT_KEYVAL: // Yes, the awkward one.
				if (substr($fromarr[$i],0,1) == '-') // Throw error if the user tries to simply set another switch while the last one is still 'open'
					die("The option '{$fromarr[$i]}' needs a value.\n");
				$fromarr[$i] = strtr($fromarr[$i],':','='); // Replace all ':' with '=' (keeping things simple and fast.
				if (strpos($fromarr[$i],'=') === false)
					die("The option '$inswitch_userkey' needs a key-value pair. E.g. '-$inswitch_userkey option=value'");
				GETOPT_setval($opts,$options,$inswitch_key,explode('=',$fromarr[$i]));
				$inswitch = GETOPT_NOTSWITCH; // Reset the reader to carry on reading normal stuff
				break;
			case GETOPT_NOTSWITCH: // General invokation of no previously complex cmdline options (i.e. i have no idea what to expect next)
				if (substr($fromarr[$i],0,1) == '-') {
					// Probably the start of a switch
					if ((strlen($fromarr[$i]) == 2) || (substr($fromarr[$i],0,2) == '--')) { // Single switch OR long opt (might be a weird thing like VAL, MULTIVAL etc.)
							$userkey = ltrim($fromarr[$i],'-');
							if (!isset($optionslookup[$userkey]))
									die("Unknown option '-$userkey'\n");
								$hashkey = $optionslookup[$userkey]; // Replace with the REAL key
							if (($options[$hashkey]['type'] == GETOPT_SWITCH) || ($options[$hashkey]['type'] == GETOPT_ACCUMULATE)) {
								GETOPT_setval($opts,$options,$hashkey,1); // Simple enough - Single option specified in switch that needs no params.
							} else { // OK the option needs a value. This is where the fun begins
								$inswitch = $options[$hashkey]['type']; // Set so the next process cycle will pick it up
								$inswitch_key = $hashkey;
								$inswitch_userkey = $userkey;
							}
					} else {
						// Multiple letters. Probably a bundling
						for ($o = 1; $o < strlen($fromarr[$i]); $o++) {
							$hashkey = substr($fromarr[$i],$o,1);
							if (!isset($optionslookup[$hashkey]))
									die("Unknown option '-$hashkey'\n");
							if (($options[$optionslookup[$hashkey]]['type'] != GETOPT_SWITCH) && ($options[$optionslookup[$hashkey]]['type'] != GETOPT_ACCUMULATE))
								die("Option '-$hashkey' requires a value.\n");
							GETOPT_setval($opts,$options,$optionslookup[$hashkey],1);
						}
					}
				} else {
					$opts['cmdline'][] = $fromarr[$i]; // Just detritus on the cmdline
				}
				break;
		}
	}
	return $opts;	
}

function GETOPT_setval(&$opts,&$options,$key,$value) {
	switch ($options[$key]['type']) {
		case GETOPT_VAL:
		case GETOPT_SWITCH:
			$opts[$key] = $value;
				break;
		case GETOPT_ACCUMULATE:
			$opts[$key]++;
				break;
		case GETOPT_MULTIVAL:
			$opts[$key][] = $value;
			break;
		case GETOPT_KEYVAL:
			$opts[$key][$value[0]] = $value[1];
	}
}
?>

If you do use this script, please take a moment to add any comments or suggestions below.

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